Sodium pentobarbital is a barbiturate medication that works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system. It acts as a potent sedative, hypnotic, and anesthetic agent by increasing the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. By increasing GABA activity, sodium pentobarbital reduces brain activity, producing a state of drowsiness, sedation, and unconsciousness. It is used for a variety of purposes, including as an anesthetic agent, anticonvulsant, and in the management of insomnia, anxiety, and agitation. However, sodium pentobarbital is a controlled substance due to its potential for abuse and addiction.