In the previous version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), substance abuse was classified as an Axis I disorder. However, with the release of the DSM-5 in 2013, the multi-axial system was eliminated and the classification of substance use disorders was changed. Substance use disorders are now classified as a single disorder in the DSM-5 and are further classified by severity, ranging from mild to severe based on the number of diagnostic criteria met by the individual. Therefore, substance abuse is not classified under a specific axis in the DSM-5.