Substance abuse can affect the brain in various ways depending on the substance being abused. Certain drugs can alter the chemical balance in the brain, affecting neurotransmitters that control emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. This can lead to a range of effects, including:

Impaired decision-making and judgment
Impaired memory and cognitive function
Changes in mood and behavior
Changes in brain structure and function
Increased risk of developing mental health disorders such as anxiety, depression, and psychosis.

Over time, substance abuse can lead to long-term changes in the brain that can be difficult to reverse, increasing the risk of developing a substance use disorder.